Thermodynamics

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Consult this comprehensive materials chart 

Includes a full list of materials to view their specific emissivity  

 

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Click on a specific material below to see its corresponding emissivity on the comprehensive material chart.

 

Adobe
Alloys
Aluminum
Asphalt
Basalt
Bismuth
Brass
Brick
Cadmium
Carbon
Carborundum
Cast iron
Ceramic
Chromium
Clay
Columbium
Concrete
Copper
Cotton cloth
Dolomite lime
Dow metal
Emery corundum
Glass
Gold
Granite
Gravel
Gypsum
Haynes Alloy C., oxidized
Haynes Alloy 25, oxidized
Haynes Alloy X., oxidized
Ice
Inconel
Iron
Lacquer
Lead
Lime mortar
Limestone
Magnesium
Magnesium oxide
Marble
Mercury
Mica
Oil on nickel
Oil, linseed
Paints
Paints, aluminum
Paints, bronze
Paints, oil
Palladium plate
Paper
Plastics (average)
Platinum
Quartz
Red lead
Rhodium flash
Rubber
Sand
Sawdust
Silica
Silver
Slate
Snow
Soil
Steel
Steel alloys
Stellite, polished
Stonework
Tantalum
Tin
Tinned iron
Titanium
Tungsten
Uranium oxide
Water
Wood
Wrought iron
Zinc



The emissivity information below was determined under ideal conditions. Note: Surface contamination such as dust, oil films, or other agents will affect the actual emissivity of your material.



MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Adobe 68 20 0.90
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Alloys:
Alloy 24ST, polished 75 24 0.90
Alloy 75ST 75 24 0.11
20-Ni, 25-Cr, 55-Fe, oxidized 392
932
200
500
0.90
0.97
60-Ni, 12-Cr, 28-Fe, oxidized 518
1040
270
560
0.89
0.82
80-Ni, 20-Cr, oxidized 212
1112
2372
100
600
1300
0.87
0.87
0.89
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Aluminum:
Unoxidized 77
212
932
25
100
500
0.02
0.03
0.06
Oxidized 390
1110
199
599
0.11
0.19
Oxidized @1110°F 390
1110
199
599
0.11
0.19
Heavily oxidized 200
940
93
504
0.20
0.31
Highly polished 212 100 0.09
Roughly polished 212 100 0.18
Commercial sheet 212 100 0.09
Highly polished plate 440
1070
227
577
0.04
0.06
Bright rolled plate 338
932
170
500
0.04
0.05
Alloy A3003, oxidized 600
900
315
482
0.40
0.40
Alloy 1100-0 200 to 800 93 to 427 0.05
Alloy 24ST 75 24 0.09
Alloy 24ST, polished 75 24 0.09
Alloy 75ST 75 24 0.11
Alloy 75ST, polished 75 24 0.08
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Asphalt:
Pavement 100 38 0.93
Tar paper 68 20 0.93
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Basalt 68 20 0.72
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Bismuth:
Bright 176 80 0.34
Unoxidized 77
212
25
100
0.05
0.06
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Brass:
Matte 68 20 0.07
Burnished to brown color 68 20 0.40
Cu-Zn, brass oxidized 392
752
1112
200
400
600
0.61
0.60
0.61
Unoxidized 77 25 0.04
Unoxidized 212 100 0.04
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Brick:
Red, rough 70 21 0.93
Gault cream 2500 to 5000 1371 to 2760 0.26 to 0.30
Fire clay 2500 1371 0.75
Light buff 1000 538 0.80
Lime clay 2500 1371 0.43
Fire brick 1832 1000 0.75 to 0.80
Magnesite, refractory 1832 1000 0.38
Gray brick 2012 1100 0.75
Silica, glazed 2000 1093 0.88
Silica, unglazed 2000 1093 0.80
Sandime 2500 to 5000 1371 to 2760 0.59 to 0.63
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Cadmium 77 25 0.02
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Carbon:
Lamp black 77 25 0.95
Unoxidized 77 25 0.81
Unoxidized 212
932
100
500
0.81
0.79
Candle soot 250 121 0.95
Filament 500 260 0.95
Graphitized 212
572
932
100
300
500
0.76
0.75
0.71
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Carborundum 1850 1010 0.92
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Cast iron:
Oxidized 390
1110
199
599
0.64
0.78
Unoxidized 212 100 0.21
Strong oxidation 104
482
40
250
0.95
0.95
Liquid 2795 1535 0.29
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Ceramic:
Alumina on Inconel 800 to 2000 427 to 1093 0.69 to 0.45
Earthenware, glazed 70 21 0.90
Earthenware, matte 70 21 0.93
Greens, No. 5210-2C 200 to 750 93 to 399 0.89 to 0.82
Coating, No. C20A 200 to 750 93 to 399 0.73 to 0.67
Porcelain 72 22 0.92
White, Al2O3 200 93 0.90
Zirconia on Inconel 800 to 2000 427 to 1093 0.62 to 0.45
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Chromium:
Chromium 100
1000
38
538
0.08
0.26
Chromium, polished 302 150 0.06
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Clay: 68 20 0.39
Fired 158 70 0.91
Shale 68 20 0.69
Tiles, light red 2500 to 5000 1371 to 2760 0.32 to 0.34
Tiles, red 2500 to 5000 1371 to 2760 0.40 to 0.51
Tiles, dark purple 2500 to 5000 1371 to 2760 0.78
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Columbium:
Unoxidized 1500
2000
816
1093
0.19
0.24
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Concrete:
Rough 32 to 200 0 to 93 0.94
Tiles, natural 2500 to 5000 1371 to 2760 0.63 to 0.62
Tiles, brown 2500 to 5000 1371 to 2760 0.87 to 0.83
Tiles, black 2500 to 5000 1371 to 2760 0.94 to 0.91
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Copper:
Black, oxidized 100 38 0.78
Etched 100 38 0.09
Matte 100 38 0.22
Roughly polished 100 38 0.07
Polished 100 38 0.03
Highly polished 100 38 0.02
Rolled 100 38 0.64
Rough 100 38 0.74
Molten 1000
1970
2230
538
108
1221
0.15
0.16
0.13
Nickel plated 100 to 500 38 to 260 0.37
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Cotton cloth 68 20 0.77
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Dolomite lime 68 20 0.41
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Dow metal 0 to 600 -18 to 315 0.15
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Emery corundum 176 80 0.86
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Glass:
Convex D 212
600
932
100
315
500
0.80
0.80
0.76
Nonex 212
600
932
100
315
500
0.82
0.82
0.78
Smooth 32 to 200 0 to 93 0.92 to 0.94
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Gold:
Enamel 212 100 0.37
Plate (0.001) on 0.0005 silver 200 to 750 93 to 399 0.11 to 0.14
Plate (0.001) on 0.005 nickel 200 to 750 93 to 399 0.07 to 0.09
Polished 100 to 500
1000 to 2000
38 to 260
538 to 1093
0.02
0.03
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Granite 70 21 0.45
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Gravel 100 38 0.28
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Gypsum 68 20 0.80 to 0.90
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Haynes Alloy C., oxidized 600 to 2000 316 to 1093 0.90 to 0.96
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Haynes Alloy 25, oxidized 600 to 2000 316 to 1093 0.86 to 0.89
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Haynes Alloy X., oxidized 600 to 2000 316 to 1093 0.85 to 0.88
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Ice:
Smooth 32 0 0.97
Rough 32 0 0.98
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Inconel:
Sheet 1000
1200
1400
538
649
760
0.28
0.42
0.58
Inconel X, polished 75 24 0.19
Inconel B, polished 75 24 0.21
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Iron:
Oxidized 212
930
2190
100
499
1199
0.74
0.89
0.89
Unoxidized 212 100 0.05
Red rust 77 25 0.70
Rusted 77 25 0.65
Liquid 2760 to 3220 1516 to 1771 0.42 to 0.45
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Lacquer:
Black 200 93 0.96
Blue, on aluminum foil 100 38 0.78
Clear, on aluminum foil, 2 coats 200 93 0.08 (0.09)
Clear, on bright copper 200 93 0.66
Clear, on tarnished copper 200 93 0.64
Red, on aluminum foil, 2 coats 100 38 0.61 (0.74)
White, on aluminum foil, 2 coats 100 38 0.69 (0.88)
White 200 93 0.95
Yellow, on aluminum foil, 2 coats 100 38 0.57 (0.79)
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Lead:
Polished 100 to 500 38 to 260 0.06 to 0.08
Rough 100 38 0.43
Oxidized 100 38 0.43
Oxidized @ 1100¡F 100 38 0.63
Oxidized, gray 100 38 0.28
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Lime mortar 100 to 500 38 to 260 0.90 to 0.92
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Limestone 100 38 0.95
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Magnesium 100 to 500 38 to 260 0.07 to 0.13
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Magnesium oxide 1800 to 3140 982 to 1727 0.16 to 0.20
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Marble:
White 100 38 0.95
Smooth 100 38 0.56
Polished gray 100 38 0.75
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Mercury 32
77
100
212
0
25
38
100
0.09
0.10
0.10
0.12
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Mica 100 38 0.75
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Oil on nickel:
0.001 film 72 22 0.27
0.002 film 72 22 0.46
0.005 film 72 22 0.72
Thick film 72 22 0.82
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Oil, linseed:
On aluminum foil, uncoated 250 121 0.09
On aluminum foil, 1 coat 250 121 0.56
On aluminum foil, 2 coats 250 121 0.51
On polished iron, 0.001 film 100 38 0.22
On polished iron, 0.002 film 100 38 0.45
On polished iron, 0.004 film 100 38 0.65
On polished iron, thick film 100 38 0.83
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Paints:
Blue, CO2O3 75 24 0.94
Black, CuO 75 24 0.96
Green, Cu2O3 75 24 0.92
Red, Fe2O3 75 24 0.91
White, Al2O3 75 24 0.94
White, Y2O3 75 24 0.90
White, ZnO 75 24 0.95
White, MgCO3 75 24 0.91
White, ZrO2 75 24 0.95
White, ThCO2 75 24 0.90
White, MgO 75 24 0.91
White, PbCO3 75 24 0.93
Yellow, PbO 75 24 0.90
Yellow, PbCrO4 75 24 0.93
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Paints, aluminum: 100 38 0.27 to 0.67
10% Al 100 38 0.52
26% Al 100 38 0.30
DOW XP-310 200 93 0.22
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Paints, bronze: Low 0.34 to 0.80
Gum varnish, 2 coats 70 21 0.53
Gum varnish, 3 coats 70 21 0.50
Cellulose binder, 2 coats 70 21 0.34
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Paints, oil:
All colors 200 93 0.92 to 0.96
Black 200 93 0.92
Black gloss 70 21 0.90
Camouflage green 125 52 0.85
Flat black 80 27 0.88
Flat white 80 27 0.91
Gray green 70 21 0.95
Green 200 93 0.95
Lamp black 209 98 0.96
Red 200 93 0.95
White 200 93 0.94
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Palladium plate(0.00005)
on 0.0005 silver
200 to 750 93 to 399 0.16 to 0.17
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Paper:
Kraft (average non-glass) 0.90
Offset (glass) 0.50 to 0.60
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Plastics (average) Low 0.95
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Platinum:
Platinum, black 100
500
2000
38
260
1093
0.93
0.96
0.97
Platinum, oxidized @ 1100°F 500
1000
260
538
0.07
0.11
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Quartz:
Rough, fused: 70 21 0.93
Glass, 1.98 mm 540
1540
282
838
0.90
0.41
Glass, 6.88 mm 540
1540
282
838
0.93
0.47
Opaque 570
1540
299
838
0.92
0.68
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Red lead 212 100 0.93
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Rhodium flash:
0.0002 on 0.0005 Ni
200 to 700 93 to 271 0.10 to 0.18
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Rubber:
Hard 74 23 0.94
Soft, gray 76 24 0.86
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Sand 68 20 0.76
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Sawdust 68 20 0.75
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Silica:
Glazed 1832 1000 0.85
Unglazed 2012 1100 0.75
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Silver:
Plate 0.0005 on nickel 200 to 700 93 to 271 0.06 to 0.07
Polished 100
500
1000
2000
38
260
538
1093
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.03
Slate 100 38 0.67 to 0.80
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Snow:
Fine particles 20 7 0.82
Granular 18 8 0.89
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Soil:
Surface 100 38 0.38
Black loam 68 20 0.66
Plowed field 68 20 0.38
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Steel:
Cold rolled 200 93 0.75 to 0.85
Ground sheet 1720 to 2010 938 to 1099 0.55 to 0.61
Polished sheet 100
500
1000
38
260
538
0.07
0.10
0.14
Mild steel, polished 75 24 0.10
Mild steel, smooth 75 24 0.12
Mile steel, liquid 2910 to 3270 1599 to 1799 0.28
Unoxidized 77
212
25
100
0.80
0.08
Oxidized 77 25 0.80
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Steel alloys:
Type 301, polished 75
450
1740
24
232
949
0.27
0.57
0.55
Type 303, oxidized 600 to 2000 316 to 1093 0.74 to 0.87
Type 310, rolled 1500 to 2100 816 to 1149 0.56 to 0.81
Type 316, polished 75
450
1740
24
232
949
0.28
0.57
0.66
Type 321 200 to 800 93 to 427 0.27 to 0.32
Type 321, polished 300 to 1500 149 to 816 0.18 to 0.49
Type 321, with black oxide 200 to 800 93 to 427 0.66 to 0.76
Type 347, oxidized 600 to 2000 316 to 1093 0.87 to 0.91
Type 350 200 to 800 93 to 427 0.18 to 0.27
Type 350, polished 300 to 1800 149 to 982 0.11 to 0.35
Type 446, polished 300 to 1500 419 to 816 0.15 to 0.37
Type 17-7PH 200 to 600 93 to 315 0.44 to 0.51
Type 17-7PH, polished 300 to 1500 149 to 816 0.09 to 0.16
Type C1020, oxidized 600 to 2000 316 to 1093 0.87 to 0.91
Type PH-15-7MO 300 to 1200 149 to 649 0.07 to 0.19
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Stellite, polished 68 20 0.18
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Stonework 100 38 0.93
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Tantalum:
Unoxidized 1340
2000
3600
5306
727
1093
1982
2930
0.14
0.19
0.26
0.30
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Tin:
Unoxidized 77
212
25
100
0.04
0.05
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Tinned iron:
Bright 76
212
24
100
0.05
0.08
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Titanium:
Alloy C110M, polished 300 to 1200 149 to 649 0.08 to 0.19
Alloy C110M, oxidized @ 1000°F 200 to 800 93 to 427 0.51 to 0.61
Alloy TI-95A, oxidized @ 1000°F 200 to 800 93 to 427 0.35 to 0.48
Anodized onto stainless steel 200 to 600 93 to 316 0.96 to 0.82
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Tungsten:
Unoxidized 77
212
932
1832
2732
3632
25
100
500
1000
1500
2000
0.02
0.03
0.07
0.15
0.23
0.28
Filament (aged) 100
1000
5000
38
538
2760
0.03
0.11
0.35
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Uranium oxide 1880 1027 0.79
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Water 100 38 0.93
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Wood: Low 0.80 to 0.90
Beech, planed 158 70 0.94
Oak, planed 100 38 0.91
Spruce, sanded 100 38 0.89
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Wrought iron:
Dull 77
660
25
349
0.94
0.94
Smooth 100 38 0.35
Polished 100 38 0.28
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MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY
°F °C
Zinc:
Bright galvanized 100 38 0.23
Commercial 99.1% 500 260 0.05
Galvanized 100 38 0.28
Oxidized 500 to 1000 260 to 538 0.11
Polished 100
500
1000
2000
38
260
538
1093
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.06

 

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